Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults, and was previously known as juvenile diabetes. Only 5% of people with diabetes have this form of the disease. In type 1 diabetes, the body does not produce insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is needed to convert sugar, starches and other food into energy needed for daily life. With the help of insulin therapy and other treatments, even young children can learn to manage their condition and live long, healthy lives.
Families, health care providers and school nurses, administrators, teachers and other school staff are all committed to ensuring that students with diabetes can learn in a safe environment with the same educational opportunities as students without diabetes.The development of a written accommodations and care plan developed under federal disability law—such as a Section 504 Plan or Individualized Education Program (IEP)—is the best way to ensure that your child's diabetes needs are met.
Diabetes Medical Management Plan (DMMP)
Parents/guardians are responsible for getting their child's completed and signed Diabetes Medical Management Plan (or doctor's orders) from their child's diabetes care provider. They should then give the DMMP to their child's school to implement and carry out. No two people manage their diabetes in the exact same way. Some students get their insulin using a syringe device used to inject medications or other liquids into body tissues. Others use insulin pens, and still others have insulin pumps. Some students are in their "honeymoon" period when they temporarily need less insulin, a hormone that helps the body use glucose for energy.
The beta cells of the pancreas make insulin and when the body cannot make enough insulin, it is taken by injection or through use of an insulin pump. Others begin to notice changes in the stability of their blood glucose, (also called blood sugar) levels as puberty sets in. Some can easily detect lows, while others don't feel lows coming on. Some students manage their diabetes independently. But younger or newly diagnosed students may need help with all aspects of their diabetes care. For this reason, doctor's orders for school care need to be specific for each student.
For access to a Diabetes Medical Management Plan form, visit http://main.diabetes.org/dorg/PDFs/Advocacy/Discrimination/dmmp-form.pdf
What Is an Individualized Education Program?
Students who qualify for services under the Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act (IDEA), should have an Individualized Education Program (IEP) instead of a 504 plan. This is the document that sets out what the school is going to do to meet the childs individual educational needs. There are a lot of specific rules about developing an IEP, reviewing it, and what it must contain. Because IEPs are so detailed and have specific requirements, school districts often use their own form. Although students with diabetes who qualify for services under IDEA are also covered by Section 504, there is no need to write two separate plans. Diabetes provisions should be included in the IEP. It may be useful to read through all of the accommodations in our Sample Section 504 Plan, and make a list of all of the accommodations that you think are appropriate for your child.
The IEP is developed with input from the following people who make up the child's IEP team:
- The child's parents/guardians
- At least one regular education teacher
- At least one of the child's special education teachers or providers
- A representative of the school district who is qualified, knowledgeable, and authorized to commit the district to the delivery of resources to the child
- A qualified professional who can interpret the evaluation of the child
- Others at the discretion of the parent or the school district
- Where appropriate, the child
An IEP must contain a number of specific provisions including:
- A statement of the child's present levels of performance, including how the child's disability affects involvement and progress in the general curriculum
- A statement of measurable annual goals, including benchmarks or short-term objectives
- A statement of the special education and supplementary aids and services to be provided
A statement of program modifications or supports for school personnel that will be provided
- A statement of any modifications needed for the child to participate in district-wide tests or other assessments
- A statement of how the child's progress toward the annual goals will be measured
For more information on IEPs, the Center for Parent Information and Resources provides many good materials - See more at: http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/parents-and-kids/diabetes-care-at-school/written-care-plans/individualized-education-program.html#sthash.EDHXOsok.dpuf
Diabetes And School Resources for North Dakota Residents
The following documents have been prepared by members of the American Diabetes Association's regional chapter, and are available for use by residents of North Dakota to help coordinate diabetes care in our school systems and childcare facilities.
- Fact Sheet: Diabetes and School Attendance: ADA.Fact.Sheet.Attendance.pdf
- North Dakota's Safe at School designation for for children with diabetes SAS_Tenates_ND.pdf
- North Dakota State Law regarding the emergency treatment of a student experiencing severe hypoglycemia: PA_guidance_b_9-16-2014.pdf
- Guidance on the administration of glucagon in North Dakota Public Schools: Fact_sheet_8_points_9-16-2014.pdf
- A sample letter illustrating the provisions of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) for children receiving an education at a public school: Sample_504_Legal_Introduction_for_School.doc
- Section 504 Plan, Diabetes Medical Management Plan (DMMP), and Physicians Letters: Documenting Diabetes/Disability: SamplePlans_PhysiciansLetterTemplates_2012.pdf
- Fact sheet of the rights of students with diabetes at religious schools: ADA.Fact.Sheet.Religious.Schools.pdf
- A template of a physician's letter to school administration: SamplePlans_PhysiciansLetterTemplates_2012.pdf
- Training for school personnel working with a student with diabetes: Diabetes_Care_Tasks_at_School_-_Training_Flyer.pdf
- Fact Sheet: The Legal Rights of Students with Diabetes on Field Trips and in Extracurricular Activities ADA.Fact.Sheet.Extracurriculars.pdf
- Diabetes Alert Brochure: DownloadableDiabetesAlertCard.pdf
Websites with information about diabetes and children:
American Association of Diabetes Educators (AADE)
200 West Madison Street, Suite 800
Chicago, IL 60606
American Diabetes Association (ADA)
1701 North Beauregard Street
Alexandria, VA 22311
Phone 800-232-3472 (Professional Member Department Only )
800-342-2383 (Center for Information and Community Support)
Barbarb Davis Center for Diabetes
Get Diabetres Right - advocacy for the public awareness and appropriate management of diabetes for children.
Diabetes and Child Care Resources
- A Diabetes Medical Management Plan for child care: ChildCareDMMPFinal.pdf
- Tips for Managing Diabetes in the Child Care Setting: Child.Care.Tips.ADA.pdf
- Child Care and Diabetes - Additional Resources: Childcare_and_Diabetes_-_Additional_Resources.pdf
- Child Care PDF Portfolio
- The Daycare Dilema: Diabetes Forecast June 2014. Jun14_Forecast_p52-57.pdf
- Diabetes and Child Care Brochure: Child_Care_brochure_11-12.pdf